T. de Thulstrup, “A Triumphal Parade of Insurgent Troops in Manila. The Genius of Liberty with the Insurgent Flag on a Float Drawn by Natives,” Harper’s Weekly, 26 November 1898.
In 1898, the Americans called Filipinos “Insurgents” even before the Philippine-American War broke out on February 4, 1899. One evidence of this is the caption of the colorized illustration above featured on an American daily. The tension between the Philippine government (its capital in Malolos) and the American military administration stationed in and around Intramuros have been mounting up when the Americans did not allow the Filipino forces (who conquered the countryside and on the verge of taking the city) to set foot on Intramuros after the Americans took it from Spain. As historian Teodoro Agoncillo writes, the prize, the capital city Manila, was denied to Filipinos, who labored arduously on the Philippine battlefield against Spain. The tensions run unabated as Apolinario Mabini, prime minister of the República Filipina, had been hearing reports of harassments done to Filipino ships (Spanish ships taken by Filipinos) by the American occupiers.
While the American military administration sought to discredit the Republic established by Filipinos and led by President Emilio Aguinaldo in the course of the war, the popular support it garnered from the Filipino nation was something to contend with. Just see the number of people in the illustration! The ferocity of Filipinos to fight the Americans in the Philippine-American War of 1899-1902 in this regard was proof of the nation’s aim at self-determination.
“When I first started in against these rebels, I believed that Aguinaldo’s troops represented only a faction. I did not like to believe that the whole population of Luzon—the native population that is—was opposed to us and our offers of aid and good government. But after having come this far, after having occupied several towns and cities in succession, and having been brought much into contact with both insurrectos and amigos, I have been reluctantly compelled to believe that the Filipino masses are loyal to Aguinaldo and the government which he heads.”
— Brig. Gen. Arthur MacArthur (1845-1912), American general in the Philippine-American War, as told to American reporter H. Irving Hannock in the fall of 1899.
Akin to an eagle
how Kalinga women are tough, proud, and dance like a soaring eagle who looks down on earth.
Oh I LOVE IT! Makes me want to go back to the conference and this particular workshop again and actually join in on the dancing which sadly I didn’t join as I wanted to record everything for you guys. :D
No problem! Like I said I love seeing Pilipin@ artists being inspired by our cultures and mythologies and using it in their artwork. :)
Nice to meet you, I’m from NYC as well. :)
And thank you visiting both my tumblr blog and pinoy-culture.com! Ah a fashion designer? Well I think it’s great that you want to integrate our cultures into your designs! I’ve seen a few Pilipin@ designers do that and some look amazing.
Actually I’ve been hoping for a designer to make clothing based on our precolonial clothing especially ones for weddings. I’m not getting married any time soon but I would love my dress to be inspired by the beautiful clothing our ancestors wore. Something like this.
If you want to know more about the precolonial culture of Ilokanos you can read Way of the Ancient Healer by Virgil Mayor Apostol who is an Ilokano healer who has researched the healing arts of the Philippines, particularly of Northern Philippines. He mentions the healing tradition of the Ilokanos and other Northern Philippine groups as well as some cultural information of the Ilokanos (especially in the back of the book with his list of terms)
In terms of precolonial culture, Ilokanos were not that much different than the other northern groups like the Kalinga, Ifugao, Bontoc, Apayao, Ibaloi, & Tinguian. They shared a similar culture with one another with some differences and they worshiped the same supreme deity, Kabunian or Lumawig as some of the other groups such as the Ifugao and Ibaloi.
The motifs on textiles today are noted by Lane Wilcken, author of Filipin@ Tattoos: Ancient to Modern, as most likely the motifs Ilokanos used in their tattooing which is the similar method like the Kalinga.
Basically the major difference that sets the Ilokanos apart from the other northern ethnic groups is that they were colonized by the Spaniards and were Christianized. If they weren’t they would still be pretty much the same as the mountain groups who weren’t colonized.
Ilocos is mentioned briefly in Miguel de Loarca’s account though its not detailed as he spent most of his time in the Bisayas. Besides this account I haven’t found anything else describing Ilokanos in great detail. Also the earliest dictionary written in the 1600s, which would have given some insight of their culture in terms of terms like how the earliest Tagalog and Bisayan dictionaries have shed some light, was sadly never completely finished because the author, Francisco Lopez died in 1631 before he could. So the earliest dictionary of the Ilokanos were in the very late years of the 1700s close to 1800. The incomplete manuscript of the dictionary however is currently held in King’s College London if any historian wants to go and research and look at the manuscript themselves to look at the terms used and see if it could give any insight to the Ilokanos precolonial culture.
Kagay-an Festival 2011
Sumalongson, the Bisayan god of the rivers and the seas. Bet you can wash clothes on that washboard abs.
Death (from Neil Gaiman’s “Sandman”) in a Maria Clara gown, a filipino traditional dress.
"TAGALOG MAGNIFICAT” © Jose Alain Austria, baybayin calligraphy on paper, 15 x 8 1/2 inches, 06 September 2014.
Anticipating the feast of the Virgin Mary [September 8], I decided to make this Tagalog baybayin transcription of the Magnificat. Unlike many of my previous baybayin works, this one is written in the pre-hispanic method [thus the absence of the “+” sign]. The “O” symbol however is not part of tradition. It is my way of separating the words from each other—but without creating uneven blank spaces.
This work used the text of Luke 1: 46-55 of the Filipino Christian Community Bible.
THE CHINESE AND CHINESE MESTIZOS OF MANILA
by Richard T. Chu, Anvil Publishing © 2012
For us to understand the Tsinoy as an integral part of the bigger Filipino tapestry, we must first look into the history of the Fujianese [or more specifically—the Minnan] diaspora in Manila. Richard Chu’s magnum opus is not just an enjoyable historical narrative—but also deep reflection on 19th century migrant’s world-view, his struggles, and the waves of “nationalisms” [both Chinese and Filipino] that forced the Tsinoy to constantly re-imagine and re-define his cultural identity.
Highly-recommended to all the Chinese- Filipinos out there who wanted to know and understand more about their cultural roots sans the contrived dramatics of the Mano Po franchise. At least in this case, well-researched history is more exciting than silver-screen fiction. – J.A.A.